Overtopping wave impacts on storm walls and buildings situated on top of a dike (WALOWA)

Design guidance for wave impacts on structures situated on top of a dike are typically developed for relatively deep water conditions.

However, in Countries like Belgium, The Netherlands, the Adriatic coast in Italy and Germany the coast is characterized by shallow water depths at the dike toe, with gentle foreshore conditions. Here a dike is often followed by a promenade and buildings or storm walls at the end of the promenade.

This setting makes it possible for waves to overtop the dike and impact on the storm wall or building causing large forces on these structures.

Design guidance for this set-up is scarce and often neglects the effects of the mild foreshores (dissipation of wave energy due to depth-limited wave breaking and release of low frequency waves).