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Knowledge transfer and uptake in design process of flood defences : case of Kinderdijk-Schoonhevensveer
A fine-grained sender-receiver framework for analyzing knowledge transfer and uptake in policy processes was proposed. This framework was applied to the dike strengthening case of Kinderdijk-Schoonhovenseveer, the Netherlands. It can be used for ex-post evaluation.
Using participatory Multi-Criteria Assessments for assessing disaster risk reduction measures
This paper introduces a participatory Multi-Criteria Assessment (MCA) methodology developed through the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts - Toolkit (RISC-KIT) project and implemented in nine case studies in Europe. The purpose of the MCA was to bridge the disciplinary divide between engineering sciences and social sciences, facilitate the communication and dissemination of local coastal risk assessments and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures' evaluation to a broad range of actors. The process addressed the importance of integrating scientific knowledge with stakeholders’ knowledge to understand and assess the possible social, political and economic implications of different DRR measures, which could foster or hinder successful implementation. The paper discusses the methodological aspects and implementation of the approach which included visualizing risk reduction of DRR measures using paper-based cards to support interaction and negotiation among participants to select preferred strategic alternatives (SA), and a participatory MCA where stakeholders evaluated the SA against three (self-weighted) criteria: feasibility, acceptability and sustainability.
A framework to include the (inter)dependencies of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in coastal risk assessment
Effective coastal risk management often involves the selection and appraisal of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures. Such measures, however, are rarely implemented in isolation and their (inter)dependencies need to be considered to assess the overall contribution to risk reduction. This paper presents a framework that utilises a pathway-based approach to consider such (inter)dependencies. The framework identifies measures that have the potential to directly influence risk reduction (primary measures) at the individual/household level and how these relate to the implementation of other measures (non-primary). These two types of measures are linked using intermediate pathway factors, which aggregate to the effective uptake and/or operation of primary measure(s) and subsequently represent the direct influence on risk reduction when included in a risk assessment. The approach is demonstrated utilising two coastal risk examples. The case of Varna Bay, Bulgaria highlights a pathway, which explores how developing a coastal Early Warning System (EWS), can enable assets to be moved and saved prior to an event. The Praia de Faro, Portuguese application provides an example of how local risk awareness meetings can support the uptake of property raising to protect against erosion. Past experience, poor trust in authorities, house type/feasibility, transient population and strong community networks are identified as key influencing variables across both cases. The process of considering the (inter)dependencies between measures has potential to lead to improved decisionmaking and strategy building. The framework developed is flexible in nature and can be applied in many different situations; however, it is one step towards accounting for these (inter)dependencies at the individual/household level. Ex-ante or ex-post survey data, expert judgement and literature have been used to estimate these factors. However, in many cases this good quality data is not available, and is something that national level monitoring strategies, along with the research community, must address.
Storm-induced risk assessment : evaluation of two tools at the regional and hotspot scale
Coastal zones are under increasing risk as coastal hazards increase due to climate change and the consequences of these also increase due to ongoing economic development. To effectively deal with this increased risk requires the development of validated tools to identify coastal areas of higher risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures. This paper analyses the performance in the application of two tools which have been developed in the RISC-KIT project: the regional Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) and a hotspot early warning system coupled with a decision support system (EWS/DSS). The paper discusses the main achievements of the tools as well as improvements needed to support their further use by the coastal community. The CRAF, a tool to identify and rank hotspots of coastal risk at the regional scale, provides useful results for coastal managers and stakeholders. A change over time of the hotspots location and ranking can be analysed as a function of changes on coastal occupation or climate change. This tool is highly dependent on the quality of available information and a major constraint to its application is the relatively poor availability and accessibility of high-quality data, particularly in respect to social-economic indicators, and to lesser extent the physical environment. The EWS/DSS can be used as a warning system to predict potential impacts or to test the effectiveness of risk reduction measures at a given hotspot. This tool provides high resolution results, but needs validation against impact data, which are still scarce. The EWS/DSS tool can be improved by enhancing the vulnerability relationships and detailing the receptors in each area (increasing the detail, but also model simulations). The developed EWS/DSS can be adapted and extended to include a greater range of conditions (including climate change), receptors, hazards and impacts, enhancing disaster preparedness for effective risk reduction for further events or morphological conditions. Despite these concerns, the tools assessed in this paper proved to be valuable instruments for coastal management and risk reduction that can be adopted in a wide range of coastal areas.
Selecting coastal hotspots to storm impacts at the regional scale : a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework
Managing coastal risk at the regional scale requires a prioritization of resources along the shoreline. A transparent and rigorous risk assessment should inform managers and stakeholders in their choices. This requires advances in modelling assessment (e.g., consideration of source and pathway conditions to define the probability of occurrence, nonlinear dynamics of the physical processes, better recognition of systemic impacts and non-economic losses) and open-source tools facilitating stakeholders' engagement in the process. This paper discusses how the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) has been developed as part of the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts Toolkit (RISC-KIT). The framework provides two levels of analysis. A coastal index approach is first recommended to narrow down the risk analysis to a reduced number of sectors which are subsequently geographically grouped into potential hotspots. For the second level of analysis an integrated modelling approach improves the regional risk assessment of the identified hotspots by increasing the spatial resolution of the hazard modelling by using innovative process-based multi-hazard models, by including generic vulnerability indicators in the impact assessment, and by calculating regional systemic impact indicators. A multi-criteria analysis of these indicators is performed to rank the hotspots and support the stakeholders in their selection. The CRAF has been applied and validated on ten European case studies with only small deviation to areas already recognised as high risk. The flexibility of the framework is essential to adapt the assessment to the specific region characteristics. The involvement of stakeholders is crucial not only to select the hotpots and validate the results, but also to support the collection of information and the valuation of assets at risk. As such, the CRAF permits a comprehensive and systemic risk analysis of the regional coast in order to identify and to select higher risk areas. Yet efforts still need to be amplified in the data collection process, in particular for socio-economic and environmental impacts.
The RISC-KIT storm impact database : a new tool in support of DRR
This paper presents a new storm impact database for European coastlines that facilitates the upload, browsing and download of a broad range of physical and impact information related to historical and recent marine storm events. The database is transparent in terms of open access to raw data and metadata, makes use of version control systems through the OpenEarth repository and promotes the use of international standards. A total of 298 storm events are currently stored in the database from the ten RISC-KIT case study sites, including historical events dating back to the sixteenth century. To demonstrate the application of the tool, examples of typical event data contained within the database as well as the ability of the database to identify impacts of events across regions are presented. It is envisaged that this database will expand beyond the ten case study sites, with the aim of promoting and greatly improving the collection and reporting of extreme hydro-meteorological events across Europe into the future.
Introduction to RISC-KIT : resilience-increasing strategies for coasts
Recent and historic low-frequency, high-impact events have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas in Europe and beyond. These coastal zone risks are likely to increase in the future which requires a reevaluation of coastal disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies and a new mix of PMP (prevention, e.g., dike protection; mitigation, e.g., limiting construction in flood-prone areas and eco-system based solutions; and preparedness, e.g., Early Warning Systems, EWS) measures. In response to these challenges, the RISC-KIT project has delivered a set of open-source and open-access methods, tools and management approaches to reduce risk and increase resilience to low-frequency, high impact hydro-meteorological events in the coastal zone (the “RISC-toolKIT”). These products enhance forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities, improve the assessment of long-term coastal risk and optimise the mix of PMP-measures. In this paper an introduction is provided to the objectives, products, applications and lessons-learned of the RISC-KIT project, which are the subjects of this Special Issue. Subsequent papers provide details on the tools and their application on 10 case study sites in Europe.
Resultaten bodemmonsteranalyse Grevelingen en Volkerak-Zoommeer : eindrapportage
Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten en interpretatie van de fysische en chemische analyses op bodemmonsters die in september 2015 zijn genomen in de Grevelingen en het VolkerakZoommeer. De fysische analyses hebben tot doelom de erosie-gevoeligheid van het bodemslib te bepalen en op basis hiervan te bepalen in welke mate vertroebeling kan optreden in geval van een nieuw beheer. Hierbij wordt door herintroductie van getij een sterkere stroming gerealiseerd om de waterkwaliteit te verbeteren. De chemische analyses hebben tot doelom de mate van verontreiniging van het bodemsediment te bepalen, zodat in combinatie met de erosiegevoeligheid het risico van een verhoogde nalevering kan worden bepaald in geval van een nieuw beheer.
The use of small scale experiments for a shipping lock’s bubble screen
Bubble screens are applied at shipping locks between salt and fresh water bodies, in order to reduce the amount of salt intrusion resulting from the locking process. The importance of limiting this salt intrusion is found in the required quality of the fresh water, which is given for ecological reasons or due to its use for agriculture and/or drinking water. This study presents small scale experiments of a bubble screen in a flume. The goal of these experiments is to assess their validity, as they make use of practically unscaled bubbles. An important simplification is that this first phase of model tests uses homogeneous fresh water and the performance of the bubble screen is evaluated only on the induced water motion. The measurements are compared to available measurements from Bulson (1961) and Riess and Fanneløp (1998). Attention is given to the transversal difference of the flow. Such flow patterns are discussed in both these references.
Quantitative impact assessment of sewer condition on health risk
Due to a variety of contaminants in floodwater, exposure to urban pluvial flooding may pose a health risk to humans. In-sewer defects may cause increased pluvial flooding, possibly increasing health risks. This paper addresses the impact of in-sewer defects on urban pluvial flooding and, subsequently, on infection probabilities for humans. As such, it provides a necessary input for risk-informed sewer maintenance strategies in order to preserve the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Critical locations in sewer networks can be safeguarded through detecting changes in hydraulic properties of the sewer system, by using monitoring equipment or alternative inspection methods. Two combined sewer systems in The Netherlands with different characteristics are studied. The catchment-wide average infection probability was calculated using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) and flooding frequencies from Monte Carlo simulations with a hydrodynamic model. For the studied catchments, it is concluded that the occurrence of flooding is significantly affected by sediment deposits and, consequently, the infection probability as well. The impact of sediment deposits on infection probabilities depends on sewer systems characteristics and varies within the catchment. The results in this paper also demonstrate that further research on the relationship between flood duration and infection probabilities is required.