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Morfologische, ecologische en governance principes voor ecodynamisch ontwerpen : toegespitst op 'Bouwen met Natuur' pilots Friese IJsselmeerkust
Building with Nature in stedelijke gebieden
Het project Building with Nature in stedelijke gebieden richt zich op multifunctionele groene oplossingen. Centraal staat het leveren van ecosysteemdiensten in en om de woon- en werkomgeving, zoals bescherming tegen overstroming, oeverbescherming, zuivering van waterkwaliteit, natuurwaarden en welzijn. Door oplossingen te bieden die passen in de natuurlijke dynamiek zijn de maatregelen robuust en klimaatadaptief.
“Sand engine“ : background and design of a mega-nourishment pilot in the Netherlands
Kustmöte 2019 : naturbaserade lösningar (Malmö, 17-18 September 2019)
Building with Nature pilot Zandmotor Friese IJsselmeerkust : eindrapportage Building with Nature pilot Zandmotor Friese IJsselmeerkust - hoe effectief is de zandmotor als ecodynamische strategie voor het versterken van de Friese IJsselmeerkust?
In de periode 2011 t/m 2017 zijn er op twee locaties voor de Friese IJsselmeerkust experimenten uitgevoerd met zandmotoren. Deze pilots bij Workum en Oudemirdum zijn uitgevoerd in het kader van het Bulding with Nature programma en zijn bedoeld om kennis op te doen over het systeem en de effectiviteit van ecodynamische maatregelen voor het versterken van de Friese IJsselmeerkust. Hiervoor is een monitoringsprogramma opgezet. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten en conclusies van de monitoring van deze Building with Nature pilots en vertaalt de geleerde lessen naar aanbevelingen voor het duurzaam versterken van de Friese IJsselmeerkust.
Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature
Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important attributes. These are central to Building with Nature (BwN), an innovative approach to hydraulic engineering infrastructure development and operation. Starting from the natural system and making use of nature's ecosystem services, BwN attempts to meet society's needs for infrastructural functionality, and to create room for nature development at the same time. By including natural components in infrastructure designs, flexibility, adaptability to changing environmental conditions and extra functionalities and ecosystem services can be achieved, often at lower costs on a life-cycle basis than ‘traditional’ engineering solutions. The paper shows by a number of examples that this requires a different way of thinking, acting and interacting.
Greening flood protection in the Netherlands
The dominant paradigm of ‘building hard structures’ in flood risk management is being challenged by approaches that integrate ecosystem dynamics and are ‘nature-based’. In Greening Flood Protection (GFP) approaches of this kind, natural dynamics contribute to flood risk management, the ecosystem is enhanced, and nature and flood protection are combined. The central focus of the doctorate research that is described here, is on how knowledge about GFP decision-making enables and constrains GFP.
Muddy waters and the Wadden Sea harbours
Several harbours along the Dutch Wadden Sea deal with large siltation rates and limited possibilities for developments. However, development of new harbour activities is needed for these harbours to be able to survive in the long run. As these harbours lie in or close to areas with a protected status, expansion is not straightforward. In this paper we illustrate that harbour development is possible when a Building with Nature approach is used. This approach facilitates a design in which the proactive utilization and/or provision of ecosystem services serves as part of the engineering solution. We introduce four Building with Nature concepts that can be used in harbour designs, i.e. 1) optimising dredging strategies, 2) enhancing saltmarsh development, 3) creating estuarine gradients, and 4) optimising flow patterns. Based on these concepts, three case studies have been identified and pilot projects initiated. In the Port of Harlingen a pilot has started in which an optimized dredging strategy is combined with saltmarsh development. Around the Port of Delfzijl an estuarine gradient is combined with a salt marsh. For the Port of Den Helder a new design was proposed in which the concepts of enhancing salt marsh development, creating estuarine gradients and optimizing flow patterns are combined. Our conclusion is that even in a UNESCO listed site such as the Wadden Sea, harbour development is possible when ecosystem services are used and provided for, and when a Building with Nature concept is put at the heart of an engineering design.
Building with Nature in coastal dune management : learning by doing
This paper discusses the 8 year development and management of a new coastal dune area in the Netherlands, called Spanjaards Duin. It was constructed in 2009 by beach and fore shore nourishment. After construction was completed, building with nature has been a leading practice from the first year of development onwards. None or very little interference with the natural processes of wind, rain and vegetation was practiced. However, recent developments are such that significant human interference is necessary; an important change of practice. The reasons for interference and the intended management measures in the field are given. Lessons learned are presented. They can be relevant for coastal management elsewhere in the world.
Building with nature : restoring mangrove coast
Communities in Northern Java, Indonesia are suffering from coastal erosion affecting hundreds of kilometres of coastline. At the north coast of the province of Central Java in the district of Demak more than 3 kilometres of land including entire villages has already been swallowed up by the sea. The main causes of the problem are the removal of mangrove belts for aquaculture development, the construction of coastal infrastructure impacting sediment build-up from offshore sources, river canalisation and land subsidence caused by groundwater extraction. The Building with Nature (BwN) approach was introduced in Demak to address these root causes and mitigate their effects. The approach integrates mangrove and river restoration, small-scale engineering and sustainable land use. Permeable brushwood and bamboo structures have been built to dampen the waves and capture sediment. Once the near shore bed level had risen enough, mangrove seedlings will start to regenerate naturally. Local communities build and maintain these permeable structures through a Bio-rights approach. They are also trained to practice sustainable mixed mangrove-aquaculture, working with probiotics and local food sources. A strategy of learning-by-doing was adopted, where sharing the knowledge and the lessons learnt is supporting sound replication of the BwN approach through capacity building, knowledge exchange and embedding in policies and planning. A lesson learnt is that the land subsidence is more severe than expected which affects the net sedimentation rate behind the permeable structures and slows down the recolonization by mangroves. This lesson is communicated to the communities and policy makers.