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Morfologische, ecologische en governance principes voor ecodynamisch ontwerpen : toegespitst op 'Bouwen met Natuur' pilots Friese IJsselmeerkust
Building with Nature in stedelijke gebieden
Het project Building with Nature in stedelijke gebieden richt zich op multifunctionele groene oplossingen. Centraal staat het leveren van ecosysteemdiensten in en om de woon- en werkomgeving, zoals bescherming tegen overstroming, oeverbescherming, zuivering van waterkwaliteit, natuurwaarden en welzijn. Door oplossingen te bieden die passen in de natuurlijke dynamiek zijn de maatregelen robuust en klimaatadaptief.
“Sand engine“ : background and design of a mega-nourishment pilot in the Netherlands
Kustmöte 2019 : naturbaserade lösningar (Malmö, 17-18 September 2019)
Building with Nature pilot Zandmotor Friese IJsselmeerkust : eindrapportage Building with Nature pilot Zandmotor Friese IJsselmeerkust - hoe effectief is de zandmotor als ecodynamische strategie voor het versterken van de Friese IJsselmeerkust?
In de periode 2011 t/m 2017 zijn er op twee locaties voor de Friese IJsselmeerkust experimenten uitgevoerd met zandmotoren. Deze pilots bij Workum en Oudemirdum zijn uitgevoerd in het kader van het Bulding with Nature programma en zijn bedoeld om kennis op te doen over het systeem en de effectiviteit van ecodynamische maatregelen voor het versterken van de Friese IJsselmeerkust. Hiervoor is een monitoringsprogramma opgezet. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten en conclusies van de monitoring van deze Building with Nature pilots en vertaalt de geleerde lessen naar aanbevelingen voor het duurzaam versterken van de Friese IJsselmeerkust.
Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature
Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important attributes. These are central to Building with Nature (BwN), an innovative approach to hydraulic engineering infrastructure development and operation. Starting from the natural system and making use of nature's ecosystem services, BwN attempts to meet society's needs for infrastructural functionality, and to create room for nature development at the same time. By including natural components in infrastructure designs, flexibility, adaptability to changing environmental conditions and extra functionalities and ecosystem services can be achieved, often at lower costs on a life-cycle basis than ‘traditional’ engineering solutions. The paper shows by a number of examples that this requires a different way of thinking, acting and interacting.
Greening flood protection in the Netherlands
The dominant paradigm of ‘building hard structures’ in flood risk management is being challenged by approaches that integrate ecosystem dynamics and are ‘nature-based’. In Greening Flood Protection (GFP) approaches of this kind, natural dynamics contribute to flood risk management, the ecosystem is enhanced, and nature and flood protection are combined. The central focus of the doctorate research that is described here, is on how knowledge about GFP decision-making enables and constrains GFP.
Muddy waters and the Wadden Sea harbours
Several harbours along the Dutch Wadden Sea deal with large siltation rates and limited possibilities for developments. However, development of new harbour activities is needed for these harbours to be able to survive in the long run. As these harbours lie in or close to areas with a protected status, expansion is not straightforward. In this paper we illustrate that harbour development is possible when a Building with Nature approach is used. This approach facilitates a design in which the proactive utilization and/or provision of ecosystem services serves as part of the engineering solution. We introduce four Building with Nature concepts that can be used in harbour designs, i.e. 1) optimising dredging strategies, 2) enhancing saltmarsh development, 3) creating estuarine gradients, and 4) optimising flow patterns. Based on these concepts, three case studies have been identified and pilot projects initiated. In the Port of Harlingen a pilot has started in which an optimized dredging strategy is combined with saltmarsh development. Around the Port of Delfzijl an estuarine gradient is combined with a salt marsh. For the Port of Den Helder a new design was proposed in which the concepts of enhancing salt marsh development, creating estuarine gradients and optimizing flow patterns are combined. Our conclusion is that even in a UNESCO listed site such as the Wadden Sea, harbour development is possible when ecosystem services are used and provided for, and when a Building with Nature concept is put at the heart of an engineering design.
Objectifying Building with Nature strategies : towards scale-resolving policies
By definition, Building with Nature solutions utilise services provided by the natural system and/or provide new opportunities to that system. As a consequence, such solutions are sensitive to the status of, and interact with the surrounding system. A thorough understanding of the ambient natural system is therefore necessary to meet the required specifications and to realise the potential interactions with that system. In order to be adopted beyond the pilot scale, the potential impact of multiple BwN solutions on the natural and societal systems of a region need to be established. This requires a ‘reality check’ of the effectiveness of multiple, regional-scale applications in terms of social and environmental costs and benefits. Reality checking will help establish the upscaling potential of a certain BwN measure when addressing a larger-scale issue. Conversely, it might reveal to what extent specific smaller-scale measures are suitable in light of larger regional-scale issues. This paper presents a stepwise method to approach a reality check on BwN solutions, based on the Frame of Reference method described in a companion paper (A systematic design approach for objectifying Building with Nature solutions, 2021) and illustrates its use by two example cases. The examples show that a successful pilot project is not always a guarantee of wider applicability and that a broader application may involve dilemmas concerning environment, policy and legislation.
Building with Nature in coastal dune management : learning by doing
This paper discusses the 8 year development and management of a new coastal dune area in the Netherlands, called Spanjaards Duin. It was constructed in 2009 by beach and fore shore nourishment. After construction was completed, building with nature has been a leading practice from the first year of development onwards. None or very little interference with the natural processes of wind, rain and vegetation was practiced. However, recent developments are such that significant human interference is necessary; an important change of practice. The reasons for interference and the intended management measures in the field are given. Lessons learned are presented. They can be relevant for coastal management elsewhere in the world.