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Morfologische, ecologische en governance principes voor ecodynamisch ontwerpen : toegespitst op 'Bouwen met Natuur' pilots Friese IJsselmeerkust
“Sand engine“ : background and design of a mega-nourishment pilot in the Netherlands
Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature
Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important attributes. These are central to Building with Nature (BwN), an innovative approach to hydraulic engineering infrastructure development and operation. Starting from the natural system and making use of nature's ecosystem services, BwN attempts to meet society's needs for infrastructural functionality, and to create room for nature development at the same time. By including natural components in infrastructure designs, flexibility, adaptability to changing environmental conditions and extra functionalities and ecosystem services can be achieved, often at lower costs on a life-cycle basis than ‘traditional’ engineering solutions. The paper shows by a number of examples that this requires a different way of thinking, acting and interacting.
Building with Nature in stedelijke gebieden
Het project Building with Nature in stedelijke gebieden richt zich op multifunctionele groene oplossingen. Centraal staat het leveren van ecosysteemdiensten in en om de woon- en werkomgeving, zoals bescherming tegen overstroming, oeverbescherming, zuivering van waterkwaliteit, natuurwaarden en welzijn. Door oplossingen te bieden die passen in de natuurlijke dynamiek zijn de maatregelen robuust en klimaatadaptief.
Building with Nature in coastal dune management : learning by doing
This paper discusses the 8 year development and management of a new coastal dune area in the Netherlands, called Spanjaards Duin. It was constructed in 2009 by beach and fore shore nourishment. After construction was completed, building with nature has been a leading practice from the first year of development onwards. None or very little interference with the natural processes of wind, rain and vegetation was practiced. However, recent developments are such that significant human interference is necessary; an important change of practice. The reasons for interference and the intended management measures in the field are given. Lessons learned are presented. They can be relevant for coastal management elsewhere in the world.
Muddy waters and the Wadden Sea harbours
Several harbours along the Dutch Wadden Sea deal with large siltation rates and limited possibilities for developments. However, development of new harbour activities is needed for these harbours to be able to survive in the long run. As these harbours lie in or close to areas with a protected status, expansion is not straightforward. In this paper we illustrate that harbour development is possible when a Building with Nature approach is used. This approach facilitates a design in which the proactive utilization and/or provision of ecosystem services serves as part of the engineering solution. We introduce four Building with Nature concepts that can be used in harbour designs, i.e. 1) optimising dredging strategies, 2) enhancing saltmarsh development, 3) creating estuarine gradients, and 4) optimising flow patterns. Based on these concepts, three case studies have been identified and pilot projects initiated. In the Port of Harlingen a pilot has started in which an optimized dredging strategy is combined with saltmarsh development. Around the Port of Delfzijl an estuarine gradient is combined with a salt marsh. For the Port of Den Helder a new design was proposed in which the concepts of enhancing salt marsh development, creating estuarine gradients and optimizing flow patterns are combined. Our conclusion is that even in a UNESCO listed site such as the Wadden Sea, harbour development is possible when ecosystem services are used and provided for, and when a Building with Nature concept is put at the heart of an engineering design.
Greening flood protection in the Netherlands
The dominant paradigm of ‘building hard structures’ in flood risk management is being challenged by approaches that integrate ecosystem dynamics and are ‘nature-based’. In Greening Flood Protection (GFP) approaches of this kind, natural dynamics contribute to flood risk management, the ecosystem is enhanced, and nature and flood protection are combined. The central focus of the doctorate research that is described here, is on how knowledge about GFP decision-making enables and constrains GFP.
The Living Lab for Mud integrated sediment management based on Building with Nature concepts
Integrated sediment management approaches leveraging on Building with Nature (BwN) concepts represents a potentially powerful solution to the enormous world-wide challenges and societal needs concerning growing amounts of sediments. With this in mind, EcoShape initiated the Living Lab for Mud (LLM), an initiative that aims to develop integrated knowledge and technologies to improve understanding and implementation of management, use and reuse of (fine and soft) sediments often linked to the reinforcement, safety and restoration of coastal ecosystems (e.g. salt marshes and mangroves) or land reclamation. The LLM consists of a series of pilot projects within and outside the Netherlands, which integrate the various aspects and processes of sediment management: from sedimentation and resuspension, to fate and transport, to consolidation and strength development. The LLM integrates these physical processes with biota and socio-economic aspects, in order to develop feasible, applicable and sustainable BwN based solutions. Pilots include strategic sediment disposal to naturally nourish coastal mudflats (i.e. Mud Motor, The Netherlands), enhancing sediment trapping to encourage mangroves restoration and coastal aggradation (i.e. Demak, Indonesia), and ripening of fine dredged sediments for production of building material (i.e. Kleirijperij, The Netherlands). This presentation will introduce the LLM initiative and give an overview of these pilot projects.
Ecosystem-based adaptation using Building with Nature : towards resilient coasts in Indonesia
This project involves the restoration of tropical muddy mangrove coasts linking up coasts and catchments and work on technical coastal measures in combination with alternative livelihoods, with strong support from local communities.
Building with Nature pilot Zandmotor Friese IJsselmeerkust : hoe effectief is de zandmotor als ecodynamische strategie voor het versterken van de Friese IJsselmeerkust?
Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de monitoring van de Building with Nature pilot langs de Friese IJsselmeerkust in de periode 2011 t/m 2015. De monitoring van de experimenten met zandmotoren bij Workum en Oudemirdum is gericht op het begrijpen van het gedrag van de zandmotor, de effecten op de kust en op de ecologie. De monitoring loopt door tot en met 2017, dit rapport is dan ook te beschouwen als een tussenstand. Omdat er in 2016 een MIRT-pre-verkenning start met als doel het vaststellen van compenserende maatregelen langs de Friese IJsselmeerkust voor het veranderende peilregime van het IJsselmeer is het opportuun om nu met deze tussenstand van monitoringsresultaten te komen. In 2017 worden de definitieve resultaten gepubliceerd.