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Potentials and pitfalls of mapping nature-based solutions with the online citizen science platform ClimateScan
Online knowledge-sharing platforms could potentially contribute to an accelerated climate adaptation by promoting more green and blue spaces in urban areas. The implementation of smallscale nature-based solutions (NBS) such as bio(swales), green roofs, and green walls requires the involvement and enthusiasm of multiple stakeholders. This paper discusses how online citizen science platforms can stimulate stakeholder engagement and promote NBS, which is illustrated with the case of ClimateScan. Three main concerns related to online platforms are addressed: the period of relevance of the platform, the lack of knowledge about the inclusiveness and characteristics of the contributors, and the ability of sustaining a well-functioning community with limited resources. ClimateScan has adopted a “bottom–up” approach in which users have much freedom to create and update content. Within six years, this has resulted in an illustrated map with over 5000 NBS projects around the globe and an average of more than 100 visitors a day. However, points of concern are identified regarding the data quality and the aspect of community-building. Although the numbers of users are rising, only a few users have remained involved. Learning from these remaining top users and their motivations, we draw general lessons and make suggestions for stimulating long-term engagement on online knowledge-sharing platforms.
Enhancing delta resilience
Inauguration speech about delta resilience and ways to enhance resilience using Building with Nature solutions. Gives a short introduction on deltas, defines delta resilience, goes over different Building with Nature concepts, showcases some of the work that the research group Building with Nature is doing in the Dutch SW delta and presents new ideas for future work, here and abroad.
Zachte werken met harde trekken : toepassingen van eco-engineering in de waterbouw
De programma’s Eco-engineering en Building with nature onderzoeken beiden hoe de natuurlijke functies van infrastructuur op een duurzame, klimaatrobuuste en kostenefficiënte manier geïntegreerd kunnen worden. Bij de toepassing van eco-engineeringsconcepten ondersteunen natuurlijke processen en organismen de realisatie en het functioneren van de waterbouwkundige infrastructuur. Elf van deze projecten staan beschreven in dit boekje.
Probabilistic characterization of the vegetated hydrodynamic system using non-parametric Bayesian networks
The increasing risk of flooding requires obtaining generalized knowledge for the implementation of distinct and innovative intervention strategies, such as nature-based solutions. Inclusion of ecosystems in flood risk management has proven to be an adaptive strategy that achieves multiple benefits. However, obtaining generalizable quantitative information to increase the reliability of such interventions through experiments or numerical models can be expensive, laborious, or computationally demanding. This paper presents a probabilistic model that represents interconnected elements of vegetated hydrodynamic systems using a nonparametric Bayesian network (NPBN) for seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves. NPBNs allow for a system-level probabilistic description of vegetated hydrodynamic systems, generate physically realistic varied boundary conditions for physical or numerical modeling, provide missing information in data-scarce environments, and reduce the amount of numerical simulations required to obtain generalized results—all of which are critically useful to pave the way for successful implementation of nature-based solutions.
Handbook for the implementation of nature-based solutions for water security : guidelines for designing an implementation and financing arrangement
Following the Financing Framework for Water Security (Altamirano, 2017) principles we have further tailored and developed additional elements to fit the innovative nature of NBS projects for which there are important evidence and information gaps, like expected and typical cash and risk profiles of green and hybrid (green-grey) projects and more importantly which levels of water and water risk mitigation service(s) they can guarantee over time. To fill in this knowledge gaps we make use of collaborative modelling techniques that allow for transdisciplinary collaboration and enable the development of the full business case for investments in NBS for water security, even if at a conceptual and semiquantitative level to start with. In this deliverable we present the basic methodological elements of our approach and the process it involves, as well as the results of the three demonstration cases we have supported to develop an implementation strategy beyond our NAIAD project, pioneer examples of implementation and financing arrangements from around the world and our conclusions and recommendations about what is needed to move ahead towards implementation at scale of NBS for water security in Europe. The three demos we have supported directly are Rotterdam in the Netherlands, Medina del Campo in Spain and Potelu in the lower Danube in Romania.
A quickscan of building-with-nature solutions to mitigate coastal erosion in Colombia : interim report
In the end of 2012, specialists of both Colombia and the Netherlands conducted a quick-scan on sustainable solutions for coastal erosion problems along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. The project was carried out within the framework of an agreement between the research institutes Invemar (Santa Marta, Colombia) and Deltares (Delft, The Netherlands). The work was sponsored by the Department of Marine Affairs, Coastal and Aquatic Resources of the Ministry of the Environment (Bogota, Colombia). During the project seminars, workshops and field visits had been arranged, both in Colombia and the Netherlands.
Eco-engineering in the Netherlands : soft interventions with a solid impact
In eco-engineering projects we let nature contribute to flood protection. We use the services that ecosystems provide to achieve this, such as plants that dissipate wave energy and oysters that stabilize sediment. We thus create more natural flood defences that meet the strict demands of flood protection in what one might call a soft intervention with a solid impact.. This short book presents eleven examples of eco-engineering concepts in action.
Vegetated hydrodynamic system : parameterization and stochastic dependence modelling
Vegetation as a nature-based solution, along with conventional solutions like dikes, has convincingly shown potential for flood hazard (wave load) reduction. However, be it numerical or experimental, only a few isolated case evidences have been presented. This study introduces stochastic dependence modelling using non-parametric Bayesian networks (NPBN) for vegetated coastal systems. The system has been parametrized using continuous distributions, and likely (conditional) correlations among variables. NPBNs can cater continuous marginal distributions and use Gaussian copulas. The model represents a consistent joint probability distribution and hence can be used to generate conditions in physically realistic windows. It adds value to numerical modelling by reducing the number of simulations required to get meaningful generalized results.
Widely supported guidelines for nature-based solutions in flood risk management
In collaboration with over twenty-five international institutions, Deltares developed guidelines for the effective implementation of nature-based solutions for flood risk management. The guidelines highlight process steps and principles that aim to optimise projects for the reduction of flood risks by introducing nature-based elements. The guidelines will be tested in practice in next year by both bilateral donors and international organisations.
Managing erosion of mangrove-mud coasts with permeable dams – lessons learned
Mangrove-mud coasts across the world erode because of uninformed management, conversion of mangrove forests into aquaculture ponds, development of infrastructure and urbanization, and/or extraction of groundwater inducing land subsidence. The accompanied loss of ecosystem values, amongst which safety against flooding, has far reaching consequences for coastal communities, exacerbated by sea-level rise. To halt erosion various nature-based solutions have been implemented as an alternative to hard infrastructure sea defenses, including mangrove planting and erection of low-tech structures such as bamboo fences, permeable brushwood dams, etc. These structures have been designed on the basis of best-engineering practice, lacking sufficient scientific background. This paper investigates the use and success of permeable dams over a period of about 15 years, describing their application in Guyana, Indonesia, Suriname, Thailand and Vietnam, summarizing the lessons-learned, and analyzing their functioning in relation to the physical-biological coastal system. Also an overview of relevant costs is given. The basic philosophy behind the construction of permeable dams is the rehabilitation of mangrove habitat through re-establishment of the (fine) sediment dynamics – we refer to Building with Nature as the overarching principle of this approach. Our main conclusions are that a successful functioning of permeable dams requires (1) a thorough understanding of the physical-biological system and analysis of the relevant processes, (2) patience and persistence, including maintenance, as the natural time scales to rehabilitate mangrove green belts take years to decades, and (3) intensive stakeholder involvement. We give a list of conditions under which permeable dams may be successful, but in qualitative terms, as local site conditions largely govern their success or failure.