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Combining water and energy supply
This study explores the feasibility of a distribution and storage system that supplies both heat and cold based on local sources and drinking water to buildings. By combining thermal energy and drinking water supply in one network would save on underground distribution network. This study was conducted as part of the Dutch research programme 'Knowledge for Climate'.A conceptual framework is provided to determine 1) heat demand of an urban area, 2) heat yield of the urban water system and 3) heat storage capacity of the urban aquifer system. This framework is applied to a mainly residential suburb of Amsterdam. Results show that 25% of the demand can be provided by the urban water system and cycle in a time period when it can be used directly. A further 75% of heat is available in periods when there is no demand. Aquifer thermal energy storage can provide enough heat storage to provide a solution for the temporal mismatch between energy availability and demand.The overall energy performance of using the urban water cycle for heat supply and storage was compared to the primary energy consumption of a traditional system. The Epr of this system compared to a traditional system shows a 7% reduction. Key factors limiting the energy savings are the seasonal performance factor and the conversion factor of primary energy to electrical energy.The urban water system can provide an effective source of heat for urban areas. However, a more detailed design and more research are on both the thermal and economic efficiency. Delivering both drinking water and thermal energy using the same network does not seem feasible. The water quality in the combined distribution network can not be guaranteed to meet consumption standards. Point source purification can be used as a solution, but the higher cost for providing drinking water and the slightly increased health risk are expected to outweigh the advantage of saving on one distribution system.
Storm surge modelling in the South China Sea
Sea level anomalies (SLA) due to different phenomena have been observed in various parts of the South China Sea (SCS). Excluding tsunamis, the largest anomalies are classified as storm surges. Storm surges in the most southwestern part of the SCS are associated with a strong persistent wind blowing along the longest axis of the sea, roughly passing through Taiwan and Singapore.
Holistic management of brownfield regeneration (HOMBRE) : early indicators for brownfield origination
One of the first objectives of HOMBRE is to get a better understanding of why, how, where and when brownfields are formed, in order to avoid future BFs as much as possible. To this end, ‘early indicators’ are identified, that can aid in anticipating brownfield formation and related problems in an early stage. Then, through managed intervention, this could be prevented from happening. Thus, the goal of the early indicators is to have a signalling function towards persons or organisations responsible for land management. The management level specifically considered is that of the municipality. In total, around 40 early indicators have been identified through literature review, that are viewed to be generically usable. They have been grouped into clusters within the categories of economic, social and environmental indicators. Municipal land managers are envisaged to select from the list of suggested indicators the ones that are most relevant and convenient in their situation.
Geological survey of the Hondsrug megaflute, Drenthe, the Netherlands
Ice streams always reflects an unbalance between accumulation and ablation in ice sheets and along ice sheet margins they are highly variable and dynamic in space and time. Present-day and Last Glacial examples of ice streams demonstrate a behaviour of switching on and off; acceleration and deceleration, migration and change of direction. The situation at the ice margin provides a main control on the mass (in)balance of the ice stream, for example where melting or calving occurs in ice lakes, seas and oceans. The knowledge on controlling factors and process dynamics of present day ice streams has much grown. For paleo-ice-streams, however less studies truly assess process-relations, especially in NW Europe. We have focussed on the Hondsrug – Ice Stream of Saalian age (Drenthe Substage, within MIS 6) in NE Netherlands and NW Germany, glaciated in the penultimate glacial, but not in the last glacial. The best expression is a 60 km long megaflute complex landform, known as ‘Hondsrug’. Because of its unique genesis and preservation, the Province of Drenthe has nominated the Hondsrug to be a UNESCO - GEOPARK. Results are discussed and related to Winsborrow et al. (2010) hierarchy of controls of ice streams. We have strong reasons that ice streams of the terrestrial ice margins of the former Scandinavian ice sheets of the North Sea, German, Polish and Baltic area are controlled in a different way than e.g. Antarctic actual- and North American palaeo-examples. The ice-streams appear regional initial deglaciation phenomena, affected by substrate and ice-margin control primarily, rather than larger scale expanding ice-cap phenomena. This conclusion opens new approach in understanding the scales and dynamics of ice streaming at the tipping point of maximum glaciation to initial deglaciation, and input for further research between the North Sea and the Baltic.
Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) design characteristics
This report gives an overview of the various design characteristics of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes and discusses their advantages and drawbacks. For this review, 19 (PES) cases have been examined.
Best practice guidelines for the integrated planning and design of economically sound and environmentally friendly roads in the Mekong floodplains of Cambodia and Viet Nam : synthesis report
For a number of reasons road development in a floodplain, like the still quite natural Mekong floodplain, requires a different approach to planning and technical design, compared to road development in areas that are not regularly) inundated. On the one hand, floods can severely damage infrastructure including roads, whilst on the other hand, roads and associated infrastructure fragment the floodplains and interrupt the natural flow of water, sediments, nutrients and aquatic life. The underlying question addressed by the ‘Roads and Floods’ project, is how to develop roads in a sensitive ecosystem like the floodplain of the Mekong in a sustainable manner that minimizes the impact on the benefits of the annual inundations and at the same time reduces damage to roads. The main findings of the project are presented in this synthesis report.
Determination of good environmental status : implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive for the Dutch part of the North Sea (background document 2 of 3)
Understanding the present-day morphodynamics of Ameland inlet, part 2
The Kustgenese 2.0 program has resulted in unique high-resolution bed surveys of Ameland inlet. These measurements allow us to (1) investigate, analyse and better understand the morphodynamic changes on its ebb-tidal delta, and (2) to investigate the half-yearly changes in sediment budget. A time series of near yearly ebb-tidal delta bathymetries over the past decade, displays how initial small-scale perturbations in the central part of the ebb-tidal delta (the ebb-chute and shield systems) develop, grow, migrate and start to dominate the developments of the entire ebb-tidal delta. The realisation that small-scale perturbations result in ebb-tidal delta scale relocation of channels and shoals has important implications for the future morphadynamie modelling of the area. These morphodynamic models will have to contain sufficient resolution and detailed processes to capture such distortions. The high-resolution multi-beam data obtained in Ameland inlet provides valuable information on the prevailing sediment transport directions. Such knowledge is essential for the future validation of our process-based sediment transport models. Based on these surveys, we are able to construct sediment transport patterns for the proximal part of the ebb-tidal delta; Borndiep is primarily ebb-dominant and Westgat flood-dominant. These transport directions correspond to the sediment transport patterns derived from the morphodynamic changes. Correspondences in repeat surveys on the ebb-tidal delta confirm that (1) bedform asymmetry is an indicator for bedform migration, and (2) coherent, consistent, bedform fields occur through the various surveys.
The 3D Dutch Continental Shelf Model - Flexible Mesh (3D DCSMFM) : setup and validation
This report deals with the setup and validation of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (3D DCSM-FM) of the Northwest European Shelf, including the North Sea and adjacent shallow seas and estuaries such as the Wadden Sea and the Eastern and Western Scheidt. The model is developed in D-HYDRO Flexible Mesh and is based on the horizontal schematization of the 2D DCSM-FM model. Unlike this 2D model, 3D DCSM-FM includes temperature and salinity as state parameters. The validation is performed for three configurations of the model, which differ from each other with respect to horizontal resolution, model bathymetry and bottom roughness.
Duurzaam en circulair gebruik van land en het Bodem-Water-Sediment systeem : ontwikkeling van een CE scan
Dit rapport is erop gericht om de relatie tussen circulaire economie en land en het bodem-water-sedimentsysteem neer te zetten. Een aantal concepten en methodieken wordt weergegeven en er is een eerste aanzet gedaan voor een getrapte methodiek om projecten op hun circulariteit weer te geven.