Water and the subsurface play an important role as a heat source (as in aquathermal and geothermal systems) and as a storage and transport medium (as in aquifer thermal energy and high temperature storage). Using water and the subsurface for the heat transition has ecological and spatial effects. The challenge is to upscale the utilisation of water and subsurface resources and to ensure a feasible spatial integration in the urban area.

Knowledge is needed to design and manage these collective heating systems in a sustainable way.

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