Search inside publication
Rip current circulation and surf zone retention on a double barred beach
Rip currents have an important control on the exchange of water and advected materials such as sediment and pollutants, between the surf zone and inner shelf. Concurrent in situ Eulerian and Lagrangian (GPS drifter) data of surf zone waves and currents were combined with video data on wave breaking patterns over the inner and outer bars on a high energy, double-barred beach. The data collectively show how the occurrence of wave breaking over the outer bar changes the behavior of a channel rip current, and the exchange process. On both days, there was a prominent clockwise eddy in the surf zone, for which the seaward-heading portion formed a rip current in a well-defined channel rip, incised into the inner bar. Exit rate (measured with drifters) from the surf zone to inner shelf decreased significantly with increased wave breaking over the outer bar, from 71% exits to 6% over the two days. Exit rate appears to be driven by the balance between wave breaking over the inner and outer bars and pulsing of currents within the surf zone. Under higher wave conditions, there were stronger pulsations in surf zone currents and more surf zone exits. However, higher wave conditions caused wave breaking over the outer bar. This breaking increases vorticity around the outside of the surf zone eddy, which increases surf zone retention. This is in contrast to previous studies showing that vorticity is highest at the center of surf zone eddies. Under such conditions, drifter exits were rare, and occurred due to vortex shedding. During lower incident wave conditions, eddy vorticity was lower, and drifters could relatively freely exit the surf zone. This is one of the few studies that investigate surf zone circulation on a high energy, double-barred beach.
Analysing decadal-scale crescentic bar dynamics using satellite imagery : a case study at Anmok beach, South Korea
Understanding long-term sandbar dynamics can be crucial for informed coastal zone management, but is often hampered by data availability. To increase the number of sandbar observations available from bathymetric surveys, this study proposes and evaluates a method to manually extract the sandbar location using freely available satellite imagery for the case study of Anmok beach in South Korea. Validation of the satellite extracted sandbar locations against 9 in-situ measurements shows good agreement with errors well within the pixel resolution of the satellite imagery (i.e. 30m for Landsat missions). The applicability of the method is constrained to locations where (1) the cross-shore crescentic length scales are larger than the image resolution, (2) frequent wave breaking and clouds are absent and (3) the water clarity is sufficient to enable the manual extraction of the sandbar crest line. Using the additional sandbar observations from the satellite imagery significantly increases the temporal extent and resolution of the dataset for Anmok beach. This allows the study of sandbar characteristics, dynamics and impacts of human interventions to an extent that would not have been possible without the satellite imagery. Within the study period 1990–2017 it is found that the sandbar maintains a persistent crescentic pattern that is only altered during prolonged and very intense storm conditions. The cumulative alongshore migration of the sandbars is investigated and found to be in the order of hundreds of meters over the 27 years study period. Comparing the sandbar characteristics prior and after the construction of Gangneung port shows that both the amplitudes and wavelengths of the sandbar crescents near the port have decreased after its construction.
Fine sediment transport into the hyper-turbid lower Ems River : the role of channel deepening and sediment-induced drag reduction
Deepening of estuarine tidal channels often leads to tidal amplification and increasing fine sediment import. Increasing fine sediment import, in turn, may lower the hydraulic drag (due to a smoother muddy bed and/or sedimentinduced damping of turbulence), and therefore, further strengthen tidal amplification, setting in motion a process in which the sediment concentration progressively increases until the river becomes hyper-turbid. To advance our understanding of the relative role of bed roughness and bed topography on sediment import mechanisms and sediment concentration, a Delft3D numerical model has been setup for an estuary which has been deepened and as a consequence experienced a strong increase in suspended sediment concentration: the lower Ems River. This model is calibrated against present-day hydrodynamic and sedimentary observations, and reproduces the basic sediment transport dynamics despite simplified sedimentological formulations. Historic model scenarios are semi-quantitatively calibrated against historic high and low water observations, revealing that changes in hydraulic roughness and deepening are probably equally important for the observed tidal amplification. This model is subsequently used to better understand historic changes in the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes in the lower Ems River. Import of fine sediment has increased because of larger tidal transport, even though the degree of tidal asymmetry may not have significantly changed. The resulting rise in suspended sediment concentration reduced hydraulic drag, amplifying the tidal range. Export of fine sediment became less because the river-induced residual flow velocity decreased with deepening of the channel.
Effect of channel deepening on tidal flow and sediment transport - part II : muddy channels
Natural tidal channels often need deepening for navigation purposes (larger vessels). The depth increase may lead to tidal amplification, salt intrusion over longer distances, and increasing sand and mud import. Increasing fine sediment import, in turn, may start a process in which the sediment concentration progressively increases until the river becomes hyper-turbid, which may lead to increased dredging volumes and to decreased ecological values. These effects can be modeled and studied using detailed 3D models. Reliable simplified models for a first quick engineering evaluation are however lacking. In this paper, we apply both simplified and detailed 3D models to analyze the effects of channel deepening in prismatic and weakly converging tidal channels with saturated mud flow. The objective is to gain quantitative understanding of the effects of channel deepening on mud transport. We developed a simplified tidal mud model describing most relevant processes and effects in saturated mud flows with only minor horizontal transport gradients (quasi uniform conditions). The simplified model is not valid for non-saturated mud flow conditions. This model can either be used in standalonemode or in post-processing mode with computed near-bed velocities from a 3D hydrodynamic model as an input. The standalone model has been compared to various field data sets. Mud transport processes in the mouth region of muddy tidal channels can be realistically represented by the simplified model, if sufficient salinity and sediment data are available for calibration. The simulation of tidal mud transport and the behavior of an estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) in saturated and non-saturated mud flow conditions cannot be represented by the simplified model and requires the application of a detailed 3D model.
The role of sedimentation and natural compaction in a prograding delta : insights from the mega Mekong delta, Vietnam
Here we present a novel modeling study that has allowed to reproduce the formation and evolution of the Vietnamese Mekong delta over the past 4000 years. Using an adaptive finite-element mesh, the model properly simulates accretion and natural consolidation characterizing the delta evolution. Large soil grain motion and the delayed dissipation of pore-water overpressure are accounted for. We find that natural compaction of Holocene deposits following delta evolution exceeds predicted values of absolute sea level rise. The unprecedented high rates (up to ~20 mm/yr) threaten the lower delta plain with permanent inundation and inevitably reduce the designed service life of flood defense structures along the coast. Total subsidence and sediment delivery to the delta plain will determine its future elevation and vulnerability to relative sea level rise.
Datamanagementplan Kustgenese 2.0 (versie 1.0) : programma 2017-2019
Als onderdeel van de Kustgenese 2.0 onderzoekslijn wordt monitoring en modellering uitgevoerd. Het is van belang dat de data van de monitoringsprogramma's in het Amelander Zeegat en op de diepe vooroever bij Noordwijk, Ameland en Terschelling in een beheerde omgeving wordt geborgd en ontsloten. Hetzelfde geldt voor door modellen geproduceerde data. Dit datamanagementplan beschrijft de rollen en verantwoordelijkheden van betrokken partijen (Rijkswaterstaat, SEAWAD en Deltares), de technische structuur van het datamanagementsysteem en de werkwijze, procedures en afspraken. Dit is versie 1.0 van het datamanagementplan. Het plan wordt twee keer per jaar geëvalueerd en zo nodig geüpdatet.
Characterizing preferential groundwater discharge through boils using temperature
In The Netherlands, preferential groundwater discharge trough boils is a key process in the salinization of deep polders. Previous work showed that boils also influence the temperature in the subsurface and of surface water. This paper elaborates on this process combining field observations with numerical modeling. As is the case for salinity, a distinct anomaly in the subsurface and surface water temperature can be attributed to boils. Lines of equal temperature are distorted towards the boil, which can be considered as an upconing of the temperature profile by analogy of the upconing of a fresh–saltwater interface. The zone of this distortion is limited to the immediate vicinity of the boil, being about 5 m in the aquitard which holds the boil’s conduit, or maximum a few dozens of meters in the underlying aquifer. In the aquitard, heat transport is conduction dominated whereas this is convection dominated in the aquifer. The temperature anomaly differs from the salinity anomaly by the smaller radius of influence and faster time to reach a new steady-state of the former. Boils discharge water with a temperature equal to the mean groundwater temperature. This influences the yearly and diurnal variation of ditch water temperature in the immediate vicinity of the boil importantly but also the temperature in the downstream direction. Temporary nature of the boil (e.g. stability of the conduit, discharge rate), uncertainty on the 3D construction of the conduit and heterogeneity of the subsoil make it unlikely that temperature measurements can be interpreted further than a qualitative level.
Saltwater upconing due to cyclic pumping by horizontal wells in freshwater lenses
This article deals with the quantification of saltwater upconing below horizontal wells in freshwater lenses using analytical solutions as a computationally fast alternative to numerical simulations. Comparisons between analytical calculations and numerical simulations are presented regarding three aspects: (1) cyclic pumping; (2) dispersion; and (3) finite horizontal wells in a finite domain (a freshwater lens). Various hydrogeological conditions and pumping regimes within a dry half year are considered. The results show that the influence of elastic and phreatic storage (which are not taken into account in the analytical solutions) on the upconing of the interface is minimal. Furthermore, the analytical calculations based on the interface approach compare well with numerical simulations as long as the dimensionless interface upconing is below 1/3, which is in line with previous studies on steady pumping. Superimposing an analytical solution for mixing by dispersion below the well over an analytical solution based on the interface approach is appropriate in case the vertical flow velocity around the interface is nearly constant but should not be used for estimating the salinity of the pumped groundwater. The analytical calculations of interface upconing below a finite horizontal well compare well with the numerical simulations in case the distance between the horizontal well and the initial interface does not vary significantly along the well and in case the natural fluctuation of the freshwater lens is small. In order to maintain a low level of salinity in the well during a dry half year, the dimensionless analytically calculated interface upconing should stay below 0.25.
Complex conductivity of soils
The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with six different NaCl brines with conductivities in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This data set is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern polarization model of porous media in terms of relationship between the quadrature conductivity and the surface conductivity. We also investigate the relationship between the normalized chargeability (the difference of in-phase conductivity between two frequencies) and the quadrature conductivity at the geometric mean frequency. This data set confirms the relationships between the surface conductivity, the quadrature conductivity, and the normalized chargeability. The normalized chargeability depends linearly on the cation exchange capacity and specific surface area while the chargeability shows no dependence on these parameters. These new data and the dynamic Stern layer polarization model are observed to be mutually consistent. Traditionally, in hydrogeophysics, surface conductivity is neglected in the analysis of resistivity data. The relationships we have developed can be used in field conditions to avoid neglecting surface conductivity in the interpretation of DC resistivity tomograms. We also investigate the effects of temperature and saturation and, here again, the dynamic Stern layer predictions and the experimental observations are mutually consistent.
Smart rocking armour units
This paper describes a new and promising method to measure the rocking motion of armour elements that was developed at Deltares and TU Delft. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking) impact velocities. Two pioneer measurement series are described. From the readings both the temporal distribution of rocking can be inferred, as well as the spatial distribution. The temporal probability distribution for the rocking events seems logarithmic, with the impact velocity u2% being in the same order of magnitude as those reported earlier. These measurements indicate that for a randomly placed cube in an armour layer most rocking and most violent impact velocities occur about 2Dn under the waterline, instead of around the waterline. Moreover, the wave steepness is seen to have an effect on the rocking intensity. From the measurements with multiple units it can be seen that the measured impact velocity exhibits a large spatial variation among different units at an otherwise equal location.